Thursday, March 19, 2020

Reflective diary The WritePass Journal

Reflective diaryï » ¿ Abstract Reflective diaryï » ¿ ). Focussing on an area of development, namely agriculture was useful at this stage to see how international development can apply in specific regions. Session 6 Looking at transnational migration was interesting but academically challenging. I found the mobility of individuals to be a particularly informative way of understanding international development and also understanding why certain regions, such as the UK, seem to be more prone to migration than others. It did however result in me questioning preconceived ideas of international development and to take a more liberal view of people migrating out of developing regions. This was linked with other theories such as how agriculture impacts on international development (Wedman and Martin, 1986). Conclusions: By looking at the facts associated with transnational migration, it became apparent that this issue was actually much more widespread than I had originally thought, as money was often being remitted back to countries where the workers were not actually working, thus creating a movement of finance which was not readily obvious, yet was potentially crucial to the development of those regions that do not have their own internal finances. Session 7 Session 7 was, to a certain extent, an extension of session 5 which dealt with agricultural policy and considered the way in which climate change can work and is relevant to international developments, which I perceived to be closely linked to any country which relied on the climate or natural resources, to gain income. As this is an area of interest to me I became heavily involved in the discussions and as the actual seminar was run by Oxfam an element of reality was also presented from a practical point of view. This was similar to the ERM seminar and brought the theory together with practice (Winter, 1995). Conclusions: I found this very interesting, as I had not previously thought of climate change as being such an important factor in the developing regions. This encouraged me to think about wider issues when looking at a specific international problem. Session 8 This session was also very enlightening, as it focused on the role of non-government organisations, something which I had previously overlooked. My preconceived ideas relating to international development were very much based on government interference and ideas however this seminar made me think on a wider basis about non government organisations. By listening to a non-governmental organisation, a much more proactive understanding emerged, as it looked at ways in which it was motivating individuals to increase their knowledge and how the project could have a direct impact on the finances of a particular group of individuals. Conclusions: This is the first seminar where individuals were looked at in detail, and this gave it a really good human feeling which I found useful to put previous theory into context (Keenan Gilmore 2011). Session 10 Finally, we had the opportunity to look at all of the above issues, in the context of Malawi, and how poverty in this region is being dealt with, as well as identifying the key factors which affected the wider region, such as financial problems (Mulholland Turnock, 2012). This session was the most interesting I found as I had the background knowledge to put into practice and I fully participated in doing so.. Conclusions: Having studied the previous session, this session enabled me to pull together the ideas and also to use statistical data to analyse the level of poverty, in more detail, with a much broader background understanding than had been gained in the earlier sessions. Conclusions My original expectations of this course was that it would be heavily focussed on economics and trade yet there was in fact a much broader range of issues to be looked at. In particular I enjoyed the area of human interactions such as poverty in Malawi and the work of Oxfam in particular as this enabled me to understand the theories that I had previously grasped. I am looking forward to using these theories in more detail for international development studies in the future and in particular for looking at ways in which these different theories can come together to improve development in the poorer regions. References Brockbank, A. McGill, I. (2007) Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education, McGraw-Hill International. p.169 Carbonnier, G (2012) International Development Policy: Aid, Emerging Economies and Global Policies, Palgrave Macmillan Keenan, F Gilmore, C (2011) International Development: A Casebook for Effective Management, iUniverse. Kolb, D. A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as a Source off Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Moon, J, A. (2000) Reflection in Learning Professional Development: Theory and Practice. Kogan Page Moon, J (2006) Learning Journals: A Handbook for Reflective Practice And Professional Development, Taylor Francis. p.81 Mulholland, J. Turnock, C. (2012)Â   Learning in the Workplace: A Toolkit for Facilitating Learning and Assessment in Health and Social Care Settings, Routledge. p.75 Wedman, J and Martin, M. (1986) ‘Exploring the development of reflective thinking through journal writing’, Reading Improvement, 23, 1, 68-71. Winter, R (1995) ‘The assessment of professional competences:the importance of general criteria’ in The Assessment of Competence in Higher Education, eds A Edwards and P Knight, Kogan Page, London.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The 10 Best Culinary Schools in the US

The 10 Best Culinary Schools in the US SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you want a career as a chef, just trying out new recipes at home isn’t going to cut it. You’ll need to hone your skills through education, experience, or both. One of the ways to become a chef is by attending culinary school. In this article, we’ll outline what culinary schools are, who should attend them, and provide a list of the ten best culinary schools for prospective chefs. What Are Culinary Schools? Culinary schools provide professional, accredited courses related to cooking, creating recipes, decorating food, and more. When you attend culinary school, you’ll learn all aspects of food preparation and service. Culinary schools have different degrees and certificates based on what you studied. What Degree Do You Get at a Culinary School? You may associate culinarycolleges with becoming a chef, but these schools actually offer a range of degrees. But what types of degrees can you get at a culinary school depends on the school you attend and the program you enroll in. Some of the most popular culinary school programs include: Culinary arts Culinary management International cuisines Baking and pastry arts Hospitality management Restaurant management Students with a culinary school degree have many job opportunities. You can become a chef, a baker, a food and beverage director, a resort manager, or something else entirely. That being said, is a culinary school degree necessary to work in the food and beverage or hospitality industries? Do You Need to Go to Culinary School to Be a Chef? In short, no. It’s not mandatory to go to culinary school to become a chef. In the culinary world, experience goes a long way. Many chefs get their start by accumulating industry experience as line cooks or other kitchen helpers. That being said, going to culinary school has its benefits. After graduating, you’ll have a degree that demonstrates your preparation and education. Having a culinary school degree can help open doors for you as you try to get a job as a chef. 10 Top Culinary Schools If you’re looking to get a degree from a culinary school, these ten schools are the best of the best. #1: Culinary Institute of America at Hyde Park The Culinary Institute of America was founded in 1946 and is one of the best culinary schools in the world. With campuses in New York, California, and Texas, it has many options for students across the country. The school offers a number of degree programs, including bachelor’s and associate degrees. There are also professional development programs, as well as certificates for food and wine enthusiasts. #2: Institute of Culinary Education With campuses in Los Angeles and New York, the Institute of Culinary Education is a good option for a culinary degree. The Institute of Culinary Education offers diplomas in hospitality management, pastry and baking arts, culinary arts, and more. ICE has multiple degree programs of different lengths, so you can craft an education that meets your goals. With more than 14,000 graduates, ICE is one of the most renowned culinary degree programs in the United States. #3: L’Academie de Cuisine Despite the French name, L’Academie de Cuisine is located near Washington DC. Founded by fabled chef Francois Dionot, L’Academie is known for its rigorous approach to food education. There are just two degree programs here: pastry arts or culinary arts. Each program has three phases, the final one being a paid apprenticeship at a fine-dining establishment. #4: Johnson and Wales University Johnson and Wales University has locations in Florida, Denver, Charlotte and Providence and offers ten different culinary programs to choose from. Program options include culinary arts, culinary nutrition, culinary science, baking and pastry arts, restaurant, food and beverage management, and more. The breadth of degree programs at Johnson and Wales provides a good option if you want to study the culinary arts, but aren’t exactly sure what you want to specialize in yet. #5: Metropolitan Community College: Omaha, Nebraska Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, Nebraska has one of the best culinary programs in the country. The programs here are focused on helping you become a restaurant manager or a chef through a combination of education and experience. Low tuition prices and the chance to build a strong culinary portfolio make this school a great option. #6: Auguste Escoffier School of Culinary Arts The Auguste Escoffier school teaches techniques developed by the â€Å"King of Chefs,† Auguste Escoffier. This program offers small class sizes, as well as unique opportunities like the three to ten week â€Å"Farm to Table† experience that brings students out of the kitchen and onto the farm. Students learn state-of-the-art techniques and receive valuable paid internship opportunities. #7: Sullivan University National Center for Hospitality Studies Given an â€Å"exemplary† rating by the American Culinary Federation, the Sullivan University National Center for Hospitality Studies offer associate’s degree programs that students can finish in eighteen months. Graduates of the program have gone on to work as chefs, nutritionists, food scientists, and more in a number of different places. #8: New England Culinary Institute The private, for-profit New England Culinary Institute has many options for wannabe chefs, including associate's and Bachelor's degrees. Both degree programs require internships, so students will have plenty of hands-on experience. NECI also offers a number of options for career placement, like career counseling, professional development workshops, and and networking opportunities. Celebrity chef Alton Brown is an NECI alum, so if you're a "Good Eats" fan, you might want to apply here. #9: San Diego Culinary Institute The San Diego Culinary Institute focuses on practical application, with over 80% of the program occurring in the kitchen. Programs are typically completed in eight to eleven months and have both full and part-time options. As part of your work at the San Diego Culinary Institute, you’ll complete a paid internship that helps you get on the ground experience. #10: Culinary Institute of Savannah The Culinary Institute of Savannah caters to students at all stages of their careers, from total beginners to experienced. Students learn both international and American cooking techniques and can earn degrees in Culinary Arts or Culinary Baking and Pastry Arts. All degree programs require extensive time in the kitchen. Culinary Schools: Final Thoughts It’s not necessary to go to culinary school to become a chef, but if you want a culinary degree, there are tons of options for good schools out there. Consider what you want to study and how much hands-on experience you’d like when deciding which culinary school to apply to. What's Next? Not sure if a graduate degree is the right move for you? Then take a look at our in-depth guide on what grad school is and how to determine whether you should go as well as our specific guide to master's degrees. Not that into cooking and more interested in the arts? Then perhaps you'll want to take a look at our picks for the best performing arts schools and the best creative writing programs.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Statutory Interpretation Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Statutory Interpretation - Case Study Example Alec took a pecuniary advantage by deception of Vera to gain more money from the woman by dishonestly selling to her a computer that is worth 1000 for 2000. When he supplied the computer to her, he insisted that the computer is worth every penny of the 2000 given to him by Vera. There was no reason as to why the old woman would have thought the computer in question was not worth 2000 and we can not say that he was reckless to the representation of the computer. Alec knew very well the actual cost of the computer since they sold the machine at 1000 but she took advantage of the old woman and charge her double the amount the computer is worth. This act is a criminal offence under s 15 Theft Act 1968 for acquiring extra money from Vera dishonestly from the sale of the computer. For this case, Alec if convicted is liable for imprisonment of a term not exceeding ten years. This Theft Act was brought about to protect ordinary citizens from exploitation by people who want to obtain property from them in a dishonesty manner by deception. 1 For the case where Brian, an employed IT technician obtained services by deception is liable for criminal offence under the s 1 Theft Act 1978. ... Brian was a cousin to Bryan and since they share the same surname, there is no way as to why Wendy would have doubted the representation. Brian held both the season ticket that belonged to Bryan and his driving license and since they share the same surname, we can not say the Wendy was reckless to the representation and he failed to verify the two documents. For this case, Brian if convicted is liable for a criminal offence under s 1 Theft Act 1978. The Act was enacted to bring to book those who dishonestly obtain services by deception. Brian deceived Wendy, the gate attendant to believe that the services of attending to the football match has already been paid for and he was entitled to watch the football. For this case, he obtained services of watching football match by deception hence he is liable for criminal offence under s 1 Theft Act of 1978. 2 For the case where Alec advertised for a post of a qualified IT specialist who was to be graduate of BSc degree in IT but he ended up recruiting Brian who had faked that he was a graduate. Brian obtained pecuniary advantages by deception to be hired by Alec where he pretended to have graduated with a Bsc. Degree in IT where else he was using Bryan degree certificate. There is not way Alec would have noted that Brian was not a graduate since he had a degree certificate. The name Brian and Bryan looks similar and one would not note the difference between the two names and this led to Alec being deceived by Brian and recruited him to the position of a qualified IT technician believing that he was a BSc. Degree graduate. Brian was dishonest since he knew very well that he was not a BSc. Degree graduate and yet he went ahead of applying for position of a qualified IT technician with a fake degree certificate. For

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Staffing Organizations Part 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Staffing Organizations Part 1 - Essay Example Thus, terms of employment will entail permanent employment contracts, in which the employees will have secure provisions for their job positions. The permanent employment-terms fosters employee loyalty and keeps the workers settled as they focus on work; hence, it will allow full concentration of workers at work; hence, effective service delivery (Aswathappa, 2005). Additionally, the business will also institute measures of eliminating conflicts among employees and misunderstandings that may arise at the workplace. However, there will be strict corrective action, including facilitation for verbal warnings, as well as, written documentation as warning for misconduct, to facilitate corrective action that follows legal confines of permanent employment guidelines. There will also be employee performance evaluation and awarding of incentives and feedback to motivate the employees accordingly. The support structure for employees will help develop employee relations with the business, creat ing loyalty and motivation to work effectively. Treating employees less favorably or discriminately based on age, religion, race, sex and disability among others are forms of discrimination under various provisions of law. Therefore, in creating a successful working environment in the business to avoid claims of disparate treatment, the first procedure is to review the state laws concerning termination processes as applicable to the permanent employment terms. This will help in ensuring the business follows due process in terminating the employees who fail to meet the working requirements and expectations without claims of disparate treatment arising. The management will file the issued documentation of warning before termination. Additionally, in factor of employment benefits claims, the business will follow due procedures as stipulated in the state laws and bylaws in the location of the business. Thus,

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Prototype Modeling of Smart Grid Technology at Ciit Lahore

Prototype Modeling of Smart Grid Technology at Ciit Lahore CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Definition: The smart grid system is vast collection of technologies to provide an electricity network having the ability to solve the major issues related to reliability, cost effectiveness of electric power and decentralization or grid dependency The smart grid technology using renewable energy sources transferred electricity towards user side with the concept of integration of renewable energy sources. 1.1.2 Why Smart Grid Technology Adopted The demand of electricity is increased so much by the passage of time, which creates some major problems related to conventional electricity network. By 2020 energy demand will be doubled from the present demand [1]. Smart grid is the result of such efforts which are performed to make availability of electricity more reliable, economical and user friendly with the concept of decentralized network due to two way communication of electricity through network[2]. The Architectural model of a 21st century power system that interconnects everyone to affordable, abundant, clean, reliable, and efficient electricity anytime, anywhere. The purpose of Smart Grid is also to integrate several renewable resources with our national Grid and enhances the efficiency; reliability and thus providing a hassle free Transmission of electric power. It also contributes to reduce carbon emissions and providing a pollution free environment. 1.2 Back Ground 1.2.1 The European Development in the Area of Smart Grid In the next three decades European member state will expend about 750 billion in power infrastructure. This amount will expend on generation and networks. The European Technology plate form was developed in 2005 to solve the problems of Network Owners, operators and users[3]. 1.2.2 Smart Grid Development in USA In USA the Smart grid developments initiated during first Bush Administration[4]. In 2002 a DOE study describes the hundred of million of Dollar spent In US power systems on transmission practices and results a proposal of construction of transformed national electricity grid upto2030 providing the best and secure transmission of electricity[5]. 1.2.3 Smart Grid Development in Australia Under the Energy Transformed Flagship the Intelligent Grid Program was launched on 19 Aug, 2008. This Program researched in the fields of Control methodologies and economic modeling for distributed generation, Social impact of Intelligent grid, New housing developments and micro grids[6]. 1.3 Design Description 1.3.1 Features of Smart Grid The most important features of Smart Grid Technology are: Integration of Renewable Sources Battery Storage option Provide electric power to both AC and DC loads Advance Monitoring 1.3.2 Proposed Methodology Above figure shows prototype modeling of smart grid system at micro level along with the integration of several renewable energy resources such as small wind plant and solar panels. The charge controllers are special devices used for the purpose to control the abrupt change in voltage and stop the reverse flow of current towards PV or wind turbine systems, and also control the charging and discharging of batteries. An integrator is also one of the most important components of our project. The function of this device to integrate powers from both energy sources in a way that during operating time of the sources loads will directly get power from these sources and at night or the time when these sources are not operating loads are facilitated through battery banks. 1.4 Advantages of Smart Grid A. Motivates and Includes the Consumer Smart Grid is a end user device it motivates the consumer to generate a free source of electricity and to utilize it in household appliances when electricity from Grid is not available. B. Provides Power Quality for 21st Century Needs It provides power free of disturbance, sags, interruptions and spikes. C. Markets Opportunities Smart grid supports energy markets that encourage both investment and innovation. D. Operates Efficiently and Optimizes Assets Smart grid is easy to install infrastructure, transmit more power through existing systems and optimizes easily with present grid. E. Reduction in cost of power infrastructure When renewable energy sources are infused into the power grid, end-use demands can be adjusted to available power supplies. The ability to manage and reduce peak demands demolishes the need for costly peaking and â€Å"just-in-case† power infrastructure. F. Reduced use of polluting plants Some existing powerplants are not environment friendly which is adversely affecting the environment around us. Smart grid can produce pollution free generation of electricity. G. Clean power market During serious air pollution alerts, power plants and heavy industries sometimes shut down. Smart Grid ensures you clean power options. H. Energy storage Smart Grid is also equipped with battery backup options which not only stores energy also used as grid shock absorbers as well. I. Integrate able with Energy Resources and Storage Options The system also enables plug-and-play interconnection to multiple energy resources and storage devices (e.g. solar, wind, battery storage, etc.) 1.5 Brief Introduction to chapters Chapter 2 This chapter is a survey report about renewable energy sources. Also wind and solar characteristics of Pakistan are given in this chapter. Supply and Demand gap also discussed in this chapter. Chapter 3 This chapter is about PV system. Complete introduction and types of PV system are discussed also given here the architecture model of PV system with design description. And the experimental values also mentioned in this chapter. Chapter 4 This chapter defines the wind turbine specifications. Chapter starts from introduction then history discussed and after that design description is completely described. The experimental values also given in this chapter with advantages and drawbacks of wind turbine technology. Chapter 5 This chapter covers the remaining portion of smart grid technology. First of all integrator is discussed with design after that charge controller and power inverters also discussed with there design and circuitry. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY Contents: World Wide Survey of Renewable Energy Demand Supply Gap in Pakistan Depletion in Oil and Gas Energy Sources in Pakistan Wind Energy Solar Energy 2.1 World Wide Survey of Renewable Energy Renewable energy has an essential contribution in world energy generation. So many projects are under consideration regarding to renewable energy. 2.1.1 Global Status Report This report describes the market condition, investment and targets as well as policies. The report doesnt describe analysis or conclusions, though it reveals some extra ordinary facts regarding the renewable energy . By the end of 2005 only 45 countries were included in the achievement of renewable energy targets which are increased up to 76 in 2009. According to this report last year was the best era for renewable energy. Capacity in developing countries grew to 119GW, or 43% of the total. Including Pakistan and magnolia less or more than 8-0 countries has started plantation of wind power plants at commercial measures[7]. Some achievements of the year 2008 are: In just 1 year the capacity of solar photovoltaic plants tripled to 3 GW from 200 KW. Wind power by 29% and solar hot water increased by 15%. Grid connected photovoltaic systems increased up to 13GW, wind energy grew up to 250%, 121GW and total power generation capacity from renewable energy boost up to 75%. Spain becomes the super power in the field of grid connected PV systems with inclusion of 2.6GW. Germany also takes some handy steps and added 1,5GW in their system. Some other developed countries also provide large contributions like USA(3ooMW), Italy ( 300MW) , South Korea ( 270MW) and Japan (240MW) respectively . in total 16GW is the generation of solar including off-grid by 2009 worldwide. Table2.1 Energy Added and Exists in 2009-2010 2.2 Demand Supply gap in Pakistan If we give a look at demand supply graph then we will come to know that the difference between demand and supply is becoming wider and wider by the passage of time .the scenario in 3rd world countries is totally discriminated e.g. Pakistan. Needs are increasing exponentially but we are desperately lacking in finding out a good solution. if we have an eye view we may find 3 reasons of demand supply gap. Increase in prices of oil and gas , increase in population and increase in cost of energy . 2.2.1 Energy Demand With the increase in population energy requirements are also increasing. All the industry and the production of our daily need in dependent upon electricity . 2.2.2 Energy Supply Current eras total production of energy does not meet the current requirement of energy , though the end results are critical in the sense of increase in demand supply gap . Serious steps are needed to be 2.2.3 Energy cost If we have eye view on last few decades we will come to see the highlighted reduction in the reserves of oil and natural gas, which causes the increase in the cost of per unit production of electricity. This is also the reason of widening the demand supply gap. 2.2.4 Sustainability level The systems which are to be used for the generation of electricity must be stable, but unfortunately we have not surety of sustainability level of present system and the graph is gradually decreasing according to our present and future demands . This decrease in sustainability may overcome by using alternative techniques. 2.3 Depletion in oil and gas A large amount of electricity is being produced by fossil fuels and the present value of electricity generated by fossil fuels is increasing. According to the European energy commission and International energy the present reservoirs of oil and gas are not sufficient enough to meet the future requirements. so as the result after 10-12 years we have the depletion in the percentage of Oil using for the generation of electricity as shown in fig 2.2. As from the above it is obvious that from 1930 to one word till 2010 there is continuous growth in both oil and gas reserves but after 2010 there is deep declined. If the above graph follows the same pattern there is near future we will be totally dependent upon alternates of energy generation. 2.4 ENERGY SOURCES IN PAKISTAN The primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. More, a very large part of rural area does not have the electricity facilities because they are too expensive to be connected to the national grid. So, Pakistan like other developing countries in the region is facing a severe challenge in energy deficit. The development of renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting such challenge. If we see around yourself Pakistan best suits for Solar (PV, thermal), water, wind and Wastes. These are the best renewable sources and Pakistan doesnt lack these. Pakistan can b benefited from these as substitute energy in areas where these renewable sources exist. Renewable energy Fossil fuels Nuclear power 2.4.1 Renewable energy It is energy which is produced by natural sources such as wind rain solar and geothermal heat. 2.4.1.1 Types of renewable Energy Wind Biomass Solar Wave and tidal Geothermal These all sources are best placed in Pakistan and we are not lacking in any at all , thus we can produce great amount of energy using these renewable sources , Capturing renewable energy by animals , plants and humans does not permanently deplete the resource. Fossil fuels are renewable but on a very long time-scale, are exploited at rates that may deplete these resources in the near future. 2.4.2 Fossil Fuels It includes natural gas, oil and coal . fossil fuels are lacking in Pakistan as well the world therefore renewable sources are needed to meet th essential needs 2.5 Wind Energy Wind energy is one of the best of renewable sources and probably suits Pakistan atmosphere at peak. As our project is related to wind energy as well. In Pakistan wind energy projects are working under the Pakistan Meteorological Dept with the financial collaboration of Ministry of Science and Technology which are accomplishing many such projects in Pakistan. About 3% of the total Pakistans land area is termed as good to excellent for utility scale production of electricity. Fig2.3. shows the variations of wind speeds in different areas of Pakistan Average wind speed in Lahore is 3m/s as shown in Fig.2.4 . Therefore for the prototype smart Grid system, average wind speed must exceeds the theoretical values as given in[10]. 2.6 Solar energy Its one of the types of renewable energies, as in our project we are working on solar energy, in photovoltaic system solar cells covert sun radiation to DC electricity. The provinces of Sindh , Punjab and Baluchistan and the Thar desert are specially suited for the utilization of solar energy. The solar statistics in Pakistan is highly favourable for energy generation. According to Fig2.5. the South western province offers perfect condition for utilization of solar energy. Since Pakistan locates near the equator so it has relatively high UV index as compared to other regions of the World. The solar characteristics graph in the Lahore region is shown in Fig. 2.6. Lahore city also offers suitable condition for harnessing solar energy The average sunlight hours lies between 7 to 8 hours per day which is approximately 2700 hours per annually. Graph in Fig. 3 shows the UV index of Lahore during a day time in the month of April. Usually the radiation intensity has its maximum value at noon .And value of solar radiation reaches its maximum value during the mid of summers. Chapter No 3 PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM Contents: Introduction to solar panels History of PV system Photovoltaic Cell Architecture Implementation of PV system Battery 3.1 Introduction: Solar cell or photovoltaic cell is the device use to convert sunlight into electricity. It works on the basic principle of photovoltaic effect. 3.1.1 Photovoltaic effect When the photons of light falls on the semiconductor material. The photons try to knockout the electrons from the conduction bands. As the energy gap between valence and conduction band increases and when a sufficient amount of energy is projected by the light photons .the electrons knocked out from their respective atom and started to move freely. These free electrons moves towards n-side and holes created due to the deficiency of electrons in this region moves towards p-side to recombine themselves .This difference of potential allows the flow of current. The PV cell absorbs incoming light photons in p-type. This p-type layer should be synchronized in such a way that it can absorb as many as photons possible and set free as many as electrons possible, to make a radiant flow of current. In order to make and efficient flow solar cell , the surface of the cell should be kept rough to maximize the absorption of photons while reflection should be minimized in this way maximum conduction can be achieved 3.2 History The photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell Laboratories. The first highly efficient solar cell was developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Souther Fuller and Gerald Pearson in year 1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction. Firstly, cells were developed for toys and other minor uses, as the cost of their production was very high. Design of solar cells is improved day by day to utilize it for more applications. The applications for that solar panels are used are different and there are three levels of generation 3.2.1 First Generation: First generation cells are single junction devices and they have large area also having high quality with reduction in production cost 3.2.2 Second Generation: These materials are developed to address energy requirements and production cost. They reduce high temperature processing as vapour deposition, electroplating and Ultrasonic nozzles. 3.2.3 Third Generation: The aimof these technologies is to improve poor electrical performance of second generation technologies with low production cost. 3.3 Photovoltaic cell architecture A PV module consists of a silicon cell .These cell are connected in series or parallel manner in order to produce desired voltage and current .Inside a PV cell a circuit is present that is sealed from the envoi metal protective lamination .A PV panel consists of one or more modules joined together. Finally these panels are combined to make a single PV array which is a complete electricity producing unit. The performance of a PV array or its modules is rated by its maximum throughput power under S.T.C (Standard Test Condition).STC is defined as when a PV modulecell is operated under 25  °C (77F), with an incident solar irradiation of 1000 W/m2 with the spectral distribution of 1.5 air mass. These are the perfect condition for a PV module to operate in , but in actual the performance of a PV module is almost 80 to 90 percent of its STC rating. The operating lifetime of a PV module is between 20 to 30 years .Most of the manufactures offers warranty of 20 or more years of its DC output power to a sustainable amount .PV modules are also lice censed under (UL) qualification test for its reliability checks. 3.3.1 Types of Solar Cell Now a days there are various types of cell materials are developed. Multi junction PV cells are made in order to increase the cell efficiency while decreasing its volume and weight. But they are far more expensive then an ordinary silicon cells. The maximum efficiency of a PV cell is achieved almost to 30 percent by doping different intrinsic material together .Example of the exotic materials are Gallium arsenide and Indium serenade etc. However silicon cells are the most common and widely used PV cells. There are three major types of Silicon cell: Amorphous silicon solar Cell or Thin Film Cell Mono-crystalline Wafers Poly crystalline Cell Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Amorphous technology is often seen in small devices, such as those in garden lamps or calculators, although amorphous panels are also increasingly used in other larger applications. They are formed by depositing a thin film of silicon onto a sheet of different material such as steel. The panel formed as one piece and each cell is not as visible as in other types. Efficiency of an amorphous solar cell is between 6 and 8%. The Lifetime of an amorphous cell is however shorter than that of crystalline cell. Amorphous cells have current density of about 15 mA/cm2,and the voltage of the cell without any connected load is 0.8 V, which is more as compared to crystalline cells. The efficiency of amorphous solar panels is low as those made from individual solar cells, although improvement has been made over recent years to a point where they can be use as a practical alternative to panels made with crystalline cells. Crystalline silicon solar cell The maximum efficiency of silicon solar cell is around 23 %, by adding some other semi-conductor materials it can increase up to 30 %, it depends on wavelength and semiconductor material being used. Crystalline solar cells are made up of wafers like stuff, which has about 0.3 mm thick and diameter of 10 to 15 cm. They can generate approximately 35 mA of current per cm2 of area at voltage of about 550 mV at full illumination. Crystalline solar cells can be wired in series or parallel to produce a solar panel. As each cell produces a voltage of between 0.5 and 0.6 Volts, 36 cells equipped in series are needed to produce an open-circuit voltage of about 20 Volts. This is enough to charge a 12 Volt battery under certain conditions. Although the efficiency of mono-crystalline cells is slightly higher as compared to that of a polycrystalline cells, but there are some practical difference in their performance. Crystalline cells have longer lifetime than that of amorphous solar cells. In our project we have used crystalline silicon cell because they are more efficient yet lesser in volume as compared to other types of solar cell, easily available in market and it is more economical. Polycrystalline Cell Polycrystalline silicon, also called poly silicon , consists of small silicon crystals of Polycrystalline cells which can be recognized by a visible grain, a â€Å"metal flake effect†. Semiconductor grade (solar grade) polycrystalline silicon then form to single crystal silicon, that is randomly associated crystallites of silicon in polycrystalline silicon are converted to a large single crystal[11]. Single crystal silicon is used in manufacture most of Si-based microelectronic devices. Polycrystalline silicon can be available up to 99.9999% pure. 3.4 Implementation of PV system: 3.4.1 Types of PV system There are three types of PV system being implemented around the world depending upon its function and integration with other energy resources. Standalone PV system Grid Connected PV system Hybrid Systems Stand alone PV system This type of system is usually present in our wrist watches, calculators and in space crafts also. These are dependent totally on its self generated power through solar panels and are directly used by DC loads or AC loads through inverter. In some system battery bank is also available to store the unused power to facilitate loads during night or under low light conditions. Further more a charge controller is also required in order to avoid battery from over charging and deep discharging. An inverter is also employed to provide power to AC loads. Grid Connected PV system In grid connected type the PV module has also backed up with WAPDA line or Grid connection. In this way if load is not getting enough power from the PV module or its battery, it will switch to the WAPDA line. This type of system is most commonly used around the World. Its applications are found mostly in small industries and homes. Hybrid System In this type the PV system is also integrated with two or more type of energy resources which may or may not be renewable resources .For example a wind turbine, steam engine or a small hydro plant etc. Other energy sources can also be integrated depending upon climate, geographical location of the place and several other perspectives. These systems are more appropriate for remote applications such as military installation, communication stations and rural villages. 3.4.2 Design Methodology Our project is based on a Hybrid System Consisting of a PV module and a windmill as two renewable energy resources, we have chosen these sources keeping in mind the climate and terrain of Lahore. 3.4.2.1 Components of Photovoltaic system: Solar cell Panel Inverter Charge Controller Batteries Integrator The major component of our system is the integrator .The function of this device is to integrate powers from both energy sources in a way that during operating time of the sources loads will directly get power from these sources and at night or the time when these sources are not operating loads are facilitated through battery banks. A controller is placed in the integrator circuit that is continuously monitoring the voltage level being provided by the sources. If the load can operate single handed by either of the sources the rely will build its connection from load with that source while the energy generated by the second source is being stored in the batteries .If both sources are required to derive a certain load rely opens up its connection of both sources with the load. When both sources are not providing a sufficient amount of power to the loads the controller will check whether batteries could provide sufficient amount of voltage so, it will start delivering power to load from the battery bank otherwise an LED blinks indicating that system cannot provide sufficient amount of power and will shutdown eventually. 3.4.2.2 Solar Panel Characteristics Table 3.1. Solar Panel Characteristics 3.4.2.3 Experimental Values This table shows the experimental results of output voltage and output current with respect to different timings and temperature variations in a day. Table 3.2. Solar Panel Throughput 3.4.2.4 Factors Affecting Output Power STC(Standard Test Condition) The electricity produce by solar cell is in DC, the DC output of solar panel is Tested under the STC that is Cell Temperature= 25 °C Solar Radiation Intensity= 1000 W/m2.. Air Mass= 1.5 These are the standard test condition at which Solar cell gives its Maximum Efficiency, in other conditions there is almost 10 to 15 percent of decrease in the efficiency of cell with respect to its STC rating. Temperature Output power of the solar cell is inversely proportion to the increase in temperature of the cell. For a crystalline module , a typical temperature reduction factor proposed by CEC is 89 percent which means †95 watts† module will typically provide 85 Watts (95watts*0.89=85watts) under sunlight conditions during summer seasons. Mismatch and wiring Losses The performance of the system can be affected due to mismatch of module connections. The loss in power also depends upon the increase in length of wire between source and load. As the distance between source and load increases losses also increases. Therefore the distance should be kept minimal to get maximum power throughput. DC To AC conversion Losses Since our system Prototype Modeling of Smart Grid Technology at Ciit Lahore Prototype Modeling of Smart Grid Technology at Ciit Lahore CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID 1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Definition: The smart grid system is vast collection of technologies to provide an electricity network having the ability to solve the major issues related to reliability, cost effectiveness of electric power and decentralization or grid dependency The smart grid technology using renewable energy sources transferred electricity towards user side with the concept of integration of renewable energy sources. 1.1.2 Why Smart Grid Technology Adopted The demand of electricity is increased so much by the passage of time, which creates some major problems related to conventional electricity network. By 2020 energy demand will be doubled from the present demand [1]. Smart grid is the result of such efforts which are performed to make availability of electricity more reliable, economical and user friendly with the concept of decentralized network due to two way communication of electricity through network[2]. The Architectural model of a 21st century power system that interconnects everyone to affordable, abundant, clean, reliable, and efficient electricity anytime, anywhere. The purpose of Smart Grid is also to integrate several renewable resources with our national Grid and enhances the efficiency; reliability and thus providing a hassle free Transmission of electric power. It also contributes to reduce carbon emissions and providing a pollution free environment. 1.2 Back Ground 1.2.1 The European Development in the Area of Smart Grid In the next three decades European member state will expend about 750 billion in power infrastructure. This amount will expend on generation and networks. The European Technology plate form was developed in 2005 to solve the problems of Network Owners, operators and users[3]. 1.2.2 Smart Grid Development in USA In USA the Smart grid developments initiated during first Bush Administration[4]. In 2002 a DOE study describes the hundred of million of Dollar spent In US power systems on transmission practices and results a proposal of construction of transformed national electricity grid upto2030 providing the best and secure transmission of electricity[5]. 1.2.3 Smart Grid Development in Australia Under the Energy Transformed Flagship the Intelligent Grid Program was launched on 19 Aug, 2008. This Program researched in the fields of Control methodologies and economic modeling for distributed generation, Social impact of Intelligent grid, New housing developments and micro grids[6]. 1.3 Design Description 1.3.1 Features of Smart Grid The most important features of Smart Grid Technology are: Integration of Renewable Sources Battery Storage option Provide electric power to both AC and DC loads Advance Monitoring 1.3.2 Proposed Methodology Above figure shows prototype modeling of smart grid system at micro level along with the integration of several renewable energy resources such as small wind plant and solar panels. The charge controllers are special devices used for the purpose to control the abrupt change in voltage and stop the reverse flow of current towards PV or wind turbine systems, and also control the charging and discharging of batteries. An integrator is also one of the most important components of our project. The function of this device to integrate powers from both energy sources in a way that during operating time of the sources loads will directly get power from these sources and at night or the time when these sources are not operating loads are facilitated through battery banks. 1.4 Advantages of Smart Grid A. Motivates and Includes the Consumer Smart Grid is a end user device it motivates the consumer to generate a free source of electricity and to utilize it in household appliances when electricity from Grid is not available. B. Provides Power Quality for 21st Century Needs It provides power free of disturbance, sags, interruptions and spikes. C. Markets Opportunities Smart grid supports energy markets that encourage both investment and innovation. D. Operates Efficiently and Optimizes Assets Smart grid is easy to install infrastructure, transmit more power through existing systems and optimizes easily with present grid. E. Reduction in cost of power infrastructure When renewable energy sources are infused into the power grid, end-use demands can be adjusted to available power supplies. The ability to manage and reduce peak demands demolishes the need for costly peaking and â€Å"just-in-case† power infrastructure. F. Reduced use of polluting plants Some existing powerplants are not environment friendly which is adversely affecting the environment around us. Smart grid can produce pollution free generation of electricity. G. Clean power market During serious air pollution alerts, power plants and heavy industries sometimes shut down. Smart Grid ensures you clean power options. H. Energy storage Smart Grid is also equipped with battery backup options which not only stores energy also used as grid shock absorbers as well. I. Integrate able with Energy Resources and Storage Options The system also enables plug-and-play interconnection to multiple energy resources and storage devices (e.g. solar, wind, battery storage, etc.) 1.5 Brief Introduction to chapters Chapter 2 This chapter is a survey report about renewable energy sources. Also wind and solar characteristics of Pakistan are given in this chapter. Supply and Demand gap also discussed in this chapter. Chapter 3 This chapter is about PV system. Complete introduction and types of PV system are discussed also given here the architecture model of PV system with design description. And the experimental values also mentioned in this chapter. Chapter 4 This chapter defines the wind turbine specifications. Chapter starts from introduction then history discussed and after that design description is completely described. The experimental values also given in this chapter with advantages and drawbacks of wind turbine technology. Chapter 5 This chapter covers the remaining portion of smart grid technology. First of all integrator is discussed with design after that charge controller and power inverters also discussed with there design and circuitry. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY Contents: World Wide Survey of Renewable Energy Demand Supply Gap in Pakistan Depletion in Oil and Gas Energy Sources in Pakistan Wind Energy Solar Energy 2.1 World Wide Survey of Renewable Energy Renewable energy has an essential contribution in world energy generation. So many projects are under consideration regarding to renewable energy. 2.1.1 Global Status Report This report describes the market condition, investment and targets as well as policies. The report doesnt describe analysis or conclusions, though it reveals some extra ordinary facts regarding the renewable energy . By the end of 2005 only 45 countries were included in the achievement of renewable energy targets which are increased up to 76 in 2009. According to this report last year was the best era for renewable energy. Capacity in developing countries grew to 119GW, or 43% of the total. Including Pakistan and magnolia less or more than 8-0 countries has started plantation of wind power plants at commercial measures[7]. Some achievements of the year 2008 are: In just 1 year the capacity of solar photovoltaic plants tripled to 3 GW from 200 KW. Wind power by 29% and solar hot water increased by 15%. Grid connected photovoltaic systems increased up to 13GW, wind energy grew up to 250%, 121GW and total power generation capacity from renewable energy boost up to 75%. Spain becomes the super power in the field of grid connected PV systems with inclusion of 2.6GW. Germany also takes some handy steps and added 1,5GW in their system. Some other developed countries also provide large contributions like USA(3ooMW), Italy ( 300MW) , South Korea ( 270MW) and Japan (240MW) respectively . in total 16GW is the generation of solar including off-grid by 2009 worldwide. Table2.1 Energy Added and Exists in 2009-2010 2.2 Demand Supply gap in Pakistan If we give a look at demand supply graph then we will come to know that the difference between demand and supply is becoming wider and wider by the passage of time .the scenario in 3rd world countries is totally discriminated e.g. Pakistan. Needs are increasing exponentially but we are desperately lacking in finding out a good solution. if we have an eye view we may find 3 reasons of demand supply gap. Increase in prices of oil and gas , increase in population and increase in cost of energy . 2.2.1 Energy Demand With the increase in population energy requirements are also increasing. All the industry and the production of our daily need in dependent upon electricity . 2.2.2 Energy Supply Current eras total production of energy does not meet the current requirement of energy , though the end results are critical in the sense of increase in demand supply gap . Serious steps are needed to be 2.2.3 Energy cost If we have eye view on last few decades we will come to see the highlighted reduction in the reserves of oil and natural gas, which causes the increase in the cost of per unit production of electricity. This is also the reason of widening the demand supply gap. 2.2.4 Sustainability level The systems which are to be used for the generation of electricity must be stable, but unfortunately we have not surety of sustainability level of present system and the graph is gradually decreasing according to our present and future demands . This decrease in sustainability may overcome by using alternative techniques. 2.3 Depletion in oil and gas A large amount of electricity is being produced by fossil fuels and the present value of electricity generated by fossil fuels is increasing. According to the European energy commission and International energy the present reservoirs of oil and gas are not sufficient enough to meet the future requirements. so as the result after 10-12 years we have the depletion in the percentage of Oil using for the generation of electricity as shown in fig 2.2. As from the above it is obvious that from 1930 to one word till 2010 there is continuous growth in both oil and gas reserves but after 2010 there is deep declined. If the above graph follows the same pattern there is near future we will be totally dependent upon alternates of energy generation. 2.4 ENERGY SOURCES IN PAKISTAN The primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. More, a very large part of rural area does not have the electricity facilities because they are too expensive to be connected to the national grid. So, Pakistan like other developing countries in the region is facing a severe challenge in energy deficit. The development of renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting such challenge. If we see around yourself Pakistan best suits for Solar (PV, thermal), water, wind and Wastes. These are the best renewable sources and Pakistan doesnt lack these. Pakistan can b benefited from these as substitute energy in areas where these renewable sources exist. Renewable energy Fossil fuels Nuclear power 2.4.1 Renewable energy It is energy which is produced by natural sources such as wind rain solar and geothermal heat. 2.4.1.1 Types of renewable Energy Wind Biomass Solar Wave and tidal Geothermal These all sources are best placed in Pakistan and we are not lacking in any at all , thus we can produce great amount of energy using these renewable sources , Capturing renewable energy by animals , plants and humans does not permanently deplete the resource. Fossil fuels are renewable but on a very long time-scale, are exploited at rates that may deplete these resources in the near future. 2.4.2 Fossil Fuels It includes natural gas, oil and coal . fossil fuels are lacking in Pakistan as well the world therefore renewable sources are needed to meet th essential needs 2.5 Wind Energy Wind energy is one of the best of renewable sources and probably suits Pakistan atmosphere at peak. As our project is related to wind energy as well. In Pakistan wind energy projects are working under the Pakistan Meteorological Dept with the financial collaboration of Ministry of Science and Technology which are accomplishing many such projects in Pakistan. About 3% of the total Pakistans land area is termed as good to excellent for utility scale production of electricity. Fig2.3. shows the variations of wind speeds in different areas of Pakistan Average wind speed in Lahore is 3m/s as shown in Fig.2.4 . Therefore for the prototype smart Grid system, average wind speed must exceeds the theoretical values as given in[10]. 2.6 Solar energy Its one of the types of renewable energies, as in our project we are working on solar energy, in photovoltaic system solar cells covert sun radiation to DC electricity. The provinces of Sindh , Punjab and Baluchistan and the Thar desert are specially suited for the utilization of solar energy. The solar statistics in Pakistan is highly favourable for energy generation. According to Fig2.5. the South western province offers perfect condition for utilization of solar energy. Since Pakistan locates near the equator so it has relatively high UV index as compared to other regions of the World. The solar characteristics graph in the Lahore region is shown in Fig. 2.6. Lahore city also offers suitable condition for harnessing solar energy The average sunlight hours lies between 7 to 8 hours per day which is approximately 2700 hours per annually. Graph in Fig. 3 shows the UV index of Lahore during a day time in the month of April. Usually the radiation intensity has its maximum value at noon .And value of solar radiation reaches its maximum value during the mid of summers. Chapter No 3 PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM Contents: Introduction to solar panels History of PV system Photovoltaic Cell Architecture Implementation of PV system Battery 3.1 Introduction: Solar cell or photovoltaic cell is the device use to convert sunlight into electricity. It works on the basic principle of photovoltaic effect. 3.1.1 Photovoltaic effect When the photons of light falls on the semiconductor material. The photons try to knockout the electrons from the conduction bands. As the energy gap between valence and conduction band increases and when a sufficient amount of energy is projected by the light photons .the electrons knocked out from their respective atom and started to move freely. These free electrons moves towards n-side and holes created due to the deficiency of electrons in this region moves towards p-side to recombine themselves .This difference of potential allows the flow of current. The PV cell absorbs incoming light photons in p-type. This p-type layer should be synchronized in such a way that it can absorb as many as photons possible and set free as many as electrons possible, to make a radiant flow of current. In order to make and efficient flow solar cell , the surface of the cell should be kept rough to maximize the absorption of photons while reflection should be minimized in this way maximum conduction can be achieved 3.2 History The photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell Laboratories. The first highly efficient solar cell was developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Souther Fuller and Gerald Pearson in year 1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction. Firstly, cells were developed for toys and other minor uses, as the cost of their production was very high. Design of solar cells is improved day by day to utilize it for more applications. The applications for that solar panels are used are different and there are three levels of generation 3.2.1 First Generation: First generation cells are single junction devices and they have large area also having high quality with reduction in production cost 3.2.2 Second Generation: These materials are developed to address energy requirements and production cost. They reduce high temperature processing as vapour deposition, electroplating and Ultrasonic nozzles. 3.2.3 Third Generation: The aimof these technologies is to improve poor electrical performance of second generation technologies with low production cost. 3.3 Photovoltaic cell architecture A PV module consists of a silicon cell .These cell are connected in series or parallel manner in order to produce desired voltage and current .Inside a PV cell a circuit is present that is sealed from the envoi metal protective lamination .A PV panel consists of one or more modules joined together. Finally these panels are combined to make a single PV array which is a complete electricity producing unit. The performance of a PV array or its modules is rated by its maximum throughput power under S.T.C (Standard Test Condition).STC is defined as when a PV modulecell is operated under 25  °C (77F), with an incident solar irradiation of 1000 W/m2 with the spectral distribution of 1.5 air mass. These are the perfect condition for a PV module to operate in , but in actual the performance of a PV module is almost 80 to 90 percent of its STC rating. The operating lifetime of a PV module is between 20 to 30 years .Most of the manufactures offers warranty of 20 or more years of its DC output power to a sustainable amount .PV modules are also lice censed under (UL) qualification test for its reliability checks. 3.3.1 Types of Solar Cell Now a days there are various types of cell materials are developed. Multi junction PV cells are made in order to increase the cell efficiency while decreasing its volume and weight. But they are far more expensive then an ordinary silicon cells. The maximum efficiency of a PV cell is achieved almost to 30 percent by doping different intrinsic material together .Example of the exotic materials are Gallium arsenide and Indium serenade etc. However silicon cells are the most common and widely used PV cells. There are three major types of Silicon cell: Amorphous silicon solar Cell or Thin Film Cell Mono-crystalline Wafers Poly crystalline Cell Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Amorphous technology is often seen in small devices, such as those in garden lamps or calculators, although amorphous panels are also increasingly used in other larger applications. They are formed by depositing a thin film of silicon onto a sheet of different material such as steel. The panel formed as one piece and each cell is not as visible as in other types. Efficiency of an amorphous solar cell is between 6 and 8%. The Lifetime of an amorphous cell is however shorter than that of crystalline cell. Amorphous cells have current density of about 15 mA/cm2,and the voltage of the cell without any connected load is 0.8 V, which is more as compared to crystalline cells. The efficiency of amorphous solar panels is low as those made from individual solar cells, although improvement has been made over recent years to a point where they can be use as a practical alternative to panels made with crystalline cells. Crystalline silicon solar cell The maximum efficiency of silicon solar cell is around 23 %, by adding some other semi-conductor materials it can increase up to 30 %, it depends on wavelength and semiconductor material being used. Crystalline solar cells are made up of wafers like stuff, which has about 0.3 mm thick and diameter of 10 to 15 cm. They can generate approximately 35 mA of current per cm2 of area at voltage of about 550 mV at full illumination. Crystalline solar cells can be wired in series or parallel to produce a solar panel. As each cell produces a voltage of between 0.5 and 0.6 Volts, 36 cells equipped in series are needed to produce an open-circuit voltage of about 20 Volts. This is enough to charge a 12 Volt battery under certain conditions. Although the efficiency of mono-crystalline cells is slightly higher as compared to that of a polycrystalline cells, but there are some practical difference in their performance. Crystalline cells have longer lifetime than that of amorphous solar cells. In our project we have used crystalline silicon cell because they are more efficient yet lesser in volume as compared to other types of solar cell, easily available in market and it is more economical. Polycrystalline Cell Polycrystalline silicon, also called poly silicon , consists of small silicon crystals of Polycrystalline cells which can be recognized by a visible grain, a â€Å"metal flake effect†. Semiconductor grade (solar grade) polycrystalline silicon then form to single crystal silicon, that is randomly associated crystallites of silicon in polycrystalline silicon are converted to a large single crystal[11]. Single crystal silicon is used in manufacture most of Si-based microelectronic devices. Polycrystalline silicon can be available up to 99.9999% pure. 3.4 Implementation of PV system: 3.4.1 Types of PV system There are three types of PV system being implemented around the world depending upon its function and integration with other energy resources. Standalone PV system Grid Connected PV system Hybrid Systems Stand alone PV system This type of system is usually present in our wrist watches, calculators and in space crafts also. These are dependent totally on its self generated power through solar panels and are directly used by DC loads or AC loads through inverter. In some system battery bank is also available to store the unused power to facilitate loads during night or under low light conditions. Further more a charge controller is also required in order to avoid battery from over charging and deep discharging. An inverter is also employed to provide power to AC loads. Grid Connected PV system In grid connected type the PV module has also backed up with WAPDA line or Grid connection. In this way if load is not getting enough power from the PV module or its battery, it will switch to the WAPDA line. This type of system is most commonly used around the World. Its applications are found mostly in small industries and homes. Hybrid System In this type the PV system is also integrated with two or more type of energy resources which may or may not be renewable resources .For example a wind turbine, steam engine or a small hydro plant etc. Other energy sources can also be integrated depending upon climate, geographical location of the place and several other perspectives. These systems are more appropriate for remote applications such as military installation, communication stations and rural villages. 3.4.2 Design Methodology Our project is based on a Hybrid System Consisting of a PV module and a windmill as two renewable energy resources, we have chosen these sources keeping in mind the climate and terrain of Lahore. 3.4.2.1 Components of Photovoltaic system: Solar cell Panel Inverter Charge Controller Batteries Integrator The major component of our system is the integrator .The function of this device is to integrate powers from both energy sources in a way that during operating time of the sources loads will directly get power from these sources and at night or the time when these sources are not operating loads are facilitated through battery banks. A controller is placed in the integrator circuit that is continuously monitoring the voltage level being provided by the sources. If the load can operate single handed by either of the sources the rely will build its connection from load with that source while the energy generated by the second source is being stored in the batteries .If both sources are required to derive a certain load rely opens up its connection of both sources with the load. When both sources are not providing a sufficient amount of power to the loads the controller will check whether batteries could provide sufficient amount of voltage so, it will start delivering power to load from the battery bank otherwise an LED blinks indicating that system cannot provide sufficient amount of power and will shutdown eventually. 3.4.2.2 Solar Panel Characteristics Table 3.1. Solar Panel Characteristics 3.4.2.3 Experimental Values This table shows the experimental results of output voltage and output current with respect to different timings and temperature variations in a day. Table 3.2. Solar Panel Throughput 3.4.2.4 Factors Affecting Output Power STC(Standard Test Condition) The electricity produce by solar cell is in DC, the DC output of solar panel is Tested under the STC that is Cell Temperature= 25 °C Solar Radiation Intensity= 1000 W/m2.. Air Mass= 1.5 These are the standard test condition at which Solar cell gives its Maximum Efficiency, in other conditions there is almost 10 to 15 percent of decrease in the efficiency of cell with respect to its STC rating. Temperature Output power of the solar cell is inversely proportion to the increase in temperature of the cell. For a crystalline module , a typical temperature reduction factor proposed by CEC is 89 percent which means †95 watts† module will typically provide 85 Watts (95watts*0.89=85watts) under sunlight conditions during summer seasons. Mismatch and wiring Losses The performance of the system can be affected due to mismatch of module connections. The loss in power also depends upon the increase in length of wire between source and load. As the distance between source and load increases losses also increases. Therefore the distance should be kept minimal to get maximum power throughput. DC To AC conversion Losses Since our system

Friday, January 17, 2020

Our Teacher, Our Hero Essay

â€Å"You’ve better changed being naughty & playful†¦or else you’ll hurt not just me Carl!†¦ â€Å"Now, start cleaning our room†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"You do you work properly then you may go now, okay? That’s a very normal incident in a Freshmen’s atmosphere. We can’t deny the reality that 1st year level is under adjustment period to the new world they have just taken in†¦Thank you so much for all the very patient & kind teachers†¦They perform their being 2nd parent to us†¦I love my Teachers as they love us,They take their livesto their duties & roles†¦ They are very noble†¦ One of our favourite Teacher that inspires us is Miss Kendall†¦Her life story is so sad. Her father left her when her mother got sick. She is still single at the age of 32. She must work hard for her sick mother. She also helped her brothers & sister in their schooling. She told us that she has many dreams for her family & for her career as a teacher that’s why she is not yet ready to get married to her boyfriend. She told us that she’s not yet ready to balance teaching & having family of her own. â€Å"Uuuuuyyy, uuuuyyyyyy†¦Ma’am ha†¦We saw your bf this morning Ma’am Kendall†¦Uuuyyyy†¦You’re a good match Ma’am†¦Your pretty &hi’s handsome†¦he-he-he†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Sssshhh, sssshhh†¦stop teasing me girls†¦We’re still under knowing each other†¦he-he-he† â€Å"But Ma’am really you’re a good match†¦please don’t forget to invite us Ma’am on your wedding, okay?†¦He-he-he! Pretty sure, we will all be there Ma’am†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Sssshhhaaa, sssshhhaaa†¦That’s enough now. Let’s have your practice for your LitMus Pieces now†¦Please call the other candicates Chris†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Okay Ma’am, I’ll call them outside†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Susan, Alfred†¦pls. get inside now†¦we’re getting ready for our practice now†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Now, let’s start with Alfred for his vocal so lo†¦Ready now Alfred†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Alfred singing his contest song†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..) (Ma’am Kendall applause Alfred for his performance†¦) â€Å"Alfred you’re getting better now†¦but you still need to practice more, Okay†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Thank you so much Ma’am for your great support†¦I promise to do it better†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"It’s my great pleasure supporting you in times like this†¦be the best you can,okay?†¦Next, let’s have Susan for her Filipino Declamation†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Basilio? Crispin? Mgaanakko? Nasaanna kayo?†¦Nandito n siNanay†¦.Mgaanakko? Nasaan kayo?†¦Basilio? Crispin?†¦Basiliooooooooooo†¦Crispiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnn†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Bravo, bravo, Susan†¦You’re getting better everyday†¦It’s another great performance†¦I know, you can be everybody’s beat†¦ha-ha-ha!† â€Å"Thank you so much Ma’am†¦I’m getting better every day because of your great help Ma’am Kendall†¦I’m good because you’re also good Ma’am†¦ â€Å"I agree with you Susan†¦You, Ma’am Kendall & all teachers are our happiness & inspiration in school†¦ â€Å"Thank you also Susan for your kind words†¦It adds joy to my heart as you say it†¦You’re all the reason why I am here†¦he-he-he†¦Chris it’s your turn now†¦Ready?† â€Å"Yes Ma’am†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ballooooooot, Ballooooooooot†¦For sale†¦for sale Nutritious Ballooooot†¦For sale delicious Ballooooot†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Hey, girl! Come here!I’ll your ballot! (Drunk man)†¦How much is ten pieces?† †¦ †Thirteen each Sir†¦130 all in all Sir†¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†What?!?†¦your over-pricing young girl†¦That’s so expensive†¦here’s what is good to your Ballot†¦Uuummm†¦Uuummm†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Oh no!!! No!!!Pls stop it!huhuhu†¦pls stop it Sir†¦pls†¦What have you than to my Ballot†¦huhuhu†¦what have you done? You have no pity, drunkard†¦huhuhu†¦You’ll be paying for this†¦huhuhu†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Wooowww!!! Amazing performance Chris†¦you did a great job! Your really getting better in your piece Chris†¦Congratulations! I am so happy that you really are practicing so well†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Thank you so much Ma’am†¦we are so happy doing this for all of us Ma’am†¦We will try to win in our contest.† In a surprise, Rommel rushed hurriedly inside our classroom and telling something bad news to Ma’am and his catching his breath†¦Rommel is Ma’am Kendall’s nephew†¦ â€Å"Tita Ram†¦please, pls†¦be in a hurry†¦Lola was brought to the hospital†¦she was again attacked of her Asthma†¦she seemed not to look good this time Tita†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"What?†¦My goodness†¦oh my, oh my Good Lord, pls help my mother†¦ Please†¦Lord God please help her again this time†¦Okay†¦let’s go†¦Excuse me class†¦I should attend my mother in the hospital†¦Take good care of yourself†¦Be home early Okay?†¦Don’t go anywhere†¦Go home early okay?†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Okay, Ma’am†¦don’t worry about us Ma’am†¦please take care also Ma’am†¦Please be calm & relax Ma’am†¦we will help pray to God, that your mother will get better Ma’am†¦Ã¢â‚¬  We were speechless while following Ma’am Kendall on her way to the hospital†¦we just stared to each other without any sound from ourselves†¦I just realized we are all shocked†¦after a while, I asked my classmates to follow me in my prayers for Ma’am Kendall’s mother†¦We prayed not just for that moment but every moment we pray to God, we include our teachers in our prayers†¦Let us all pray for our Heroes, our Teachers†¦

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Human Cloning An Argument Against Human Reproductive...

CBMS 807 Bioethics and Biotechnology Essay assignment Session 2, 2016 Ashwag Ahmed M Baeshen 44117817 Ashwag Baeshen Essay Question (2): Explain in full the ‘life in the shadow’ argument against human reproductive cloning. How might the argument be objected to? Do you regard the argument to be morally decisive, in the sense that it establishes that human cloning for purely reproductive purposes must never be permitted? Explain and defend your answer. Introduction: As the advancement of time, the concept of human cloning can become a reality as with the breakthrough of biotechnology. Human cloning can be defined in terms of formation of genetically same imprint of an individual. The child who produced from this process is a new category of human being that is a clone of a person who cloned himself. Many people think that it is not right to cloned human beings. People argued that it is wrong to create identical human being, and this argument is dismissed by stating various other arguments in the favor of human cloning such as there is nothing wrong if monozygotic twins exist, and clone is not the identical copy of the original human being even in those situations where clone is exact genetic copy because those clones are developed in a completely different environment. In this paper, I will discuss the life in shadow argument as well as arguments opponent to it. In addition, I will discuss the ethical considerations of human reproductive cloning regarding thisShow MoreRelatedShould Cloning Be Allowed?1440 Words   |  6 Pagesstory, human cloning is becoming a feasible practice. Recently there has been a successful cloning of a sheep, so scientists start to speculate the different uses of cloning human embryos. The three forms of cloning that stand out are reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning, and cloning for scientific research. 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This essay explores the various ethical issues related to the cloning debate, and seeks answers to this deep philosophical question at the heart of bioethics. As a student of genetic biology and future biologist, this question also has personal relevance. Our science is evolving at a rapid pace. As human cloning becomes increasingly possible, itRead MoreShould Human Cloning Be Pursued? Essay810 Words   |  4 Pagessome movies, cloning in real life doesn’t produce a full grown exact replica of someone. A type of cloning that occurs naturally is when identical twins are born (â€Å"What Is Cloning?†). Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a type of cloning that has to be done in a lab. In SCNT they take the nucleolus out of an egg cell, replace it with the nucleolus of a somatic cell (body cell with two complete sets of chromosomes), and make the egg cell divide into a blastocyst (â€Å"What Is Cloning?†). There areRead MoreThe Debate of Human Cloning Essay1690 Words   |  7 Pagesjourney that human cloning has taken has been one of dramatic highs and lows, heated arguments and confusion about the path ahead. When researchers witnessed the birth of the first cloned mammal, they were ecstatic, but this high ended with the tragic early death of this sheep, Dolly, due to abnormalities (Jaenisch 2004: 2787). The initial success and progress in this field fueled scientists to want to do further research into this technology, which would eventually leading to work with human embryosRead MoreThe Benefits Of Human Reproductive Cloning989 Words   |  4 PagesIn measuring the benefits, human reproductive cloning would be advantageous to the well-being of humans and because it is a fulfillment of personal autonomy. 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Using different methods of cloning is expectedRead MoreHuman Cloning Is Not Your Twin1011 Words   |  5 Pagestoday is not about identical twin my topic today is Human cloning. Now I know that all of you know and have seen identical twins. And at some point you all wonder what would it be like to have a twin, what would it be like to have someone look exactly like you? Now with scientist experiment and finding new results in cloning how long will it be before they clone a human. I want to ask you guy will there be another you? I have been fascinated with human biology for as long as I can remember. Being inRead MoreThe First Human Clone : Real Stories930 Words   |  4 PagesThe documentary titled â€Å"The First Human Clone - Real Stories† highlights the controversial issue of human cloning. The documentary has shown the development of a ten-cell human embryo along with explaining the science behind this extraordinary procedure. 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